Ruthenium is a rare transition metal belonging to the platinum group of the periodic table. Antimony compounds have been known since ancient times and were powdered for use as medicine and cosmetics, often known by the Arabic name, kohl. Significant concentrations of boron occur on the Earth in compounds known as the borate minerals. Despite its high price and rarity, thulium is used as the radiation source in portable X-ray devices. Areas covered include atomic structure, physical properties, atomic interaction, thermodynamics, identification, atomic size, crystal structure, history, abundances, and nomenclature. Europium (Template:IPAc-en Template:Respell) is a chemical element with the symbol Eu and atomic number 63. The trivalent europium ion (Eu 3+) is well known for its strong luminescence in the red spectral region, but this ion is also interesting from a theoretical point of view.Due to the even number of electrons in the 4f shell (4f 6 configuration), the crystal-field perturbation by the crystalline host matrix lifts partly or completely the degeneracies of the 2S+1 L J levels. Under standard conditions, it is the lightest metal and the lightest solid element. The chemical symbol for Gadolinium is Gd. 6s2 and the term symbol is 8S7/2. Now, when in the + 2 oxidation state, the electronic configuration is [ X e] ( … Aluminum is a chemical element with atomic number 13 which means there are 13 protons and 13 electrons in the atomic structure. Krypton is a member of group 18 (noble gases) elements. Europium (Eu). For example, carbon has nine possible integer oxidation states from −4 to +4. Please visit their site for more information. Printed from https://EnvironmentalChemistry.com, Molar Mass Calculations and Javascript Calculator, Nitrogen Dioxide, Ozone & Lead Partner to Increase Pollution Dangers to Urban Children, Nanotech-cleantech: bridging the gap to real sustainability, ADA Recommendation for Fluoride in Infant Diets, Asbestos, a Brief History its Uses & Health Risks, Asbestos, its Chemical & Physical Properties, Asbestos: A Manufacturing Health Hazard Dating to Prehistoric Times. It is the Pauli exclusion principle that requires the electrons in an atom to occupy different energy levels instead of them all condensing in the ground state. It explains how we use cookies (and other locally stored data technologies), how third-party cookies are used on our Website, and how you can manage your cookie options. Argon is the third-most abundant gas in the Earth’s atmosphere, at 0.934% (9340 ppmv). Europium’s story is part of the complex history of the rare earths, aka lanthanoids. Oxygen is a chemical element with atomic number 8 which means there are 8 protons and 8 electrons in the atomic structure. A colorless, odorless, tasteless noble gas, krypton occurs in trace amounts in the atmosphere and is often used with other rare gases in fluorescent lamps. Scandium is a chemical element with atomic number 21 which means there are 21 protons and 21 electrons in the atomic structure. Molar mass calculations are explained and there is a JavaScript calculator to aid calculations. The number of electrons in each element’s electron shells, particularly the outermost valence shell, is the primary factor in determining its chemical bonding behavior. It readily forms hard, stable carbides in alloys, and for this reason most of world production of the element (about 80%) is used in steel alloys, including high-strength alloys and superalloys. De symbole Eu et de numéro atomique 63, il fait partie de la famille des lanthanides. Discoverer: McMillan, Edwin M. and Abelson, Philip H. Discoverer: Glenn T. Seaborg, Joseph W. Kennedy, Edward M. McMillan, Arthur C. Wohl, Discoverer: Glenn T. Seaborg, Ralph A. James, Leon O. Morgan, Albert Ghiorso, Discoverer: Glenn T. Seaborg, Ralph A. James, Albert Ghiorso, Discoverer: Stanley G. Thompson, Glenn T. Seaborg, Kenneth Street, Jr., Albert Ghiorso, Discoverer: Stanley G. Thompson, Glenn T. Seaborg, Bernard G. Harvey, Gregory R. Choppin, Albert Ghiorso, Discoverer: Albert Ghiorso, Glenn T. Seaborg, Torbørn Sikkeland, John R. Walton, Discoverer: Albert Ghiorso, Torbjørn Sikkeland, Almon E. Larsh, Robert M. Latimer, Copyright 2020 Periodic Table | All Rights Reserved |. Europium has the second lowest melting point and the lowest density of all lanthanides. Tellurium is a chemical element with atomic number 52 which means there are 52 protons and 52 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Thallium is Tl. 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